🔑 Key Takeaways
- Dr. Eric Jarvis's research shows how speech and language are interconnected pathways and offers hope for those with speech disorders and those interested in learning multiple languages. His personal journey to becoming a neurobiologist is inspiring.
- Humans and parrots have specialized speech pathways, while other animals use gestures and basic sounds for communication. Language and gestures are learned together with evidence suggesting a pyramid model for language development.
- Language is a learned vocalization controlled by the brain circuits, unique to only some species. Its evolution over time, culturally and possibly genetically, has led to brain areas controlling speech and language in certain animals, including humans.
- Both birds and humans have critical periods for language and cognitive development, and birds have innate genetic predispositions for vocal communication.
- The basic wiring of brain circuits and genes controlling neural connectivity play a crucial role in language evolution, while cultural evolution tracks genetic evolution in language development.
- Learning new skills is easier during a critical period of brain development. Speech behavior has a stronger critical period of change and is involved in neuroplasticity, making the brain more flexible and better at learning. Learning multiple languages as a child enhances the brain's ability to produce different sounds.
- Hand gestures and motor movements are essential in effective communication, especially for multilingual speakers. Semantic and effective communication are influenced by emotions, with vocal learning species using emotions for effective communication, but only a few for semantic communication. The evolution of speech began with singing for emotional attraction.
- The brain pathways for vocal learning evolved through duplication of motor circuits involved in learning to move, as discovered by Dr. Erich Jarvis, who attributes his background in dance and biology to his breakthrough in language and speech studies.
- The integration of brain regions for speech and hearing allowed humans to coordinate body movements with speech, while dance inherited the ancient singing circuit. Recent research explores the neurobiology of dance as a new field.
- Our brain activity resonates when we connect with music and dance, and understanding these connections can enhance our abilities and deepen communication and expression in the arts and in our daily lives.
- While facial expressions are innate and language skills are learned, coupling them requires practice. Writing complete sentences can help improve language skills by forcing thinking in complete thoughts.
- Our brains use intricate neurocomputational processes to generate language, including separate modules for different brain activities. Writing by hand may improve thought and writing speed alignment while communicating effectively remains a remarkable feat.
- Handwriting and typing require different motor skills and both need to be aligned with speech for coherence. Singing and listening to music can help improve speech skills while stuttering may indicate a lack of neurogenesis in the brain.
- Therapy and behavioral techniques can reduce stuttering by improving sensory motor integration and controlling input-output. Slang has existed for centuries but is often suppressed as people age, leading to proper grammar in speech.
- Texting exercises different circuits in the brain, leading to unintended negative consequences such as misinterpretation of messages. AI-based buffers can help filter negative thoughts, while the technology also aids paralyzed individuals in communicating.
- Regular physical activity, speech practice, and singing can help maintain cognitive function. Dance, walking, running, and reading challenging books are recommended for keeping the brain healthy. Consistency and enjoying the activity is key to success.
- The study of genomes can help us understand brain circuits, genetic changes, and evolution. Large-scale consortiums and complete genomes are critical for comparative genomics. Genomic studies offer hope for conservation and the recreation of extinct species.
- By using high-quality genome data, scientists can revive and restore species like passenger pigeon or woolly mammoth. Evolutionary insights can be gained by understanding brain structures and genomes, leading to important findings for conservation and basic science.
📝 Podcast Summary
The Neuroscience of Language and Music
Dr. Eric Jarvis's pioneering work on the neurobiology of vocal learning, language and music can help people with speech disorders and those interested in learning multiple languages. His research spans from genomics to neural circuits and explores the relationship between language, movement, and cognition. His work shows that speech and language are not distinct modules in the brain, but rather, they are interconnected pathways that control the production and perception of sounds. His story is especially unique and inspiring, as he arrived at becoming a neurobiologist through personal journey and struggle. The episode of Huberman Lab Podcast with Dr. Jarvis is an important one for those who want to understand the intricacies of speech and language and how our brain organizes them.
The Evolution of Communication: From Speech Pathways to Gestures and Emotions
Humans and parrots have a specialized speech production pathway, while the auditory perception pathway for understanding communication is more common in the animal kingdom. Dogs can understand several hundred human speech words, but they lack the specialized speech pathway to say words. Some animal species may have modes of communication that are like language, including gesturing with hands or body language. The brain pathways that control speech production and gesturing are adjacent to each other, suggesting an evolutionary relationship. Language and gestures are learned together in different cultures, and some animals can learn rudimentary language through motor pathways in the brain, but lack the capacity for speech. Primitive emotions and sounds may form the basic substrate of language, with evidence suggesting a hierarchical pyramid model from basic sound to more sophisticated language.
The Science of Language and its Evolution in Animals and Humans
Language is a learned vocalization that is unique to only a few species on this planet, and it is controlled by the four brain circuits. It is a rare trait that is distinguished from innate sounds produced by most vertebrate species. The brain stem controls innate vocal behaviors while the four brain circuits control learned vocalizations as seen in humans and some other species. Evidence suggests that our ancestors had this ability of vocal learning between 500,000 to a million years ago, and it has evolved over time culturally and possibly genetically. The brain areas controlling speech and language in humans and certain animals have homologies in terms of function but different names.
Birds and Humans Share Cognitive and Language Development Similarities
Birds, like songbirds and parrots, have remarkable similarities to humans in terms of language development and cognitive functions. There are critical periods for learning a language, and even later in life, it is harder to acquire new language skills. Birds that learn to sing also undergo similar critical periods of growth. These similarities extend to the brain circuits and underlying gene expressions that control behavior like speech and song. Birds have the innate predisposition to learn, and there is something genetically influencing their vocal communication apart from what they learn culturally. Hummingbirds hum and sing in a coordinated way, just like vocal learning birds that slap their wings in unison with their songs and can learn other bird species' songs although not as well as their own.
Similarities and Differences in Brain Circuits and Language Evolution
Brain circuits in humans and songbirds are similar in their basic wiring and genes expressed in both species. Genes controlling neural connectivity specialize in repelling connections from forming in humans that allow certain connections in the speech circuit to form. Calcium buffering genes and neuroprotection genes like Parva and heat shock proteins aid in the fast firing of muscles in the larynx during speech production. When people from two separate populations are brought together, the hybrid language they develop has the lowest common denominator, phonemes that they retained from each of their languages. Species bond with their own kind in learning each other's songs or languages more readily. Cultural evolution in language remarkably tracks genetic evolution.
The Significance of Critical Period in Brain Development
The brain undergoes a critical period of development, during which it is easier to learn new skills like playing the piano or learning a language. Speech behavior has a stronger critical period of change than other circuits and is involved in neuroplasticity, which allows for more flexible brain circuits and better learning ability. The brain undergoes this critical period to make circuits more stable and less prone to memory loss. Humans stay plastic in their brain functions compared to other animals because of the gene Sr gap two. Learning multiple languages as a child makes it easier to learn new languages later on, as the brain maintains greater ability to produce different sounds.
The Role of Hand Gestures and Motor Movements in Communication and Neuroscience.
Hand gestures and motor movements also play a crucial role in communication, especially for people who speak multiple languages that switch their patterns of motor movements. Semantic communication and effective communication are the two forms of communication that have been used by similar brain circuits, and they are heavily influenced by the emotional context in which it is spoken. All vocal learning species use this emotional effective communication, but only a few like humans and some parrots and dolphins use it for the semantic kind of communication. The evolution of speech leading to abstract communication is also theorized to have started from singing for emotional attraction and later became used for abstract communication. The background in dance also contributed to Dr. Erich Jarvis's interest in motor control in neuroscience.
The Connection Between Vocal Learning and Dance
The ability to imitate sounds, known as vocal learning, is present in animals that can learn how to dance. This was discovered in 2009 and led to a theory called the brain pathway or motor theory of vocal learning origin. This theory explains that brain pathways for vocal learning and speech evolved by a duplication of the surrounding motor circuits involving learning how to move. Dr. Erich Jarvis, who has studied the brain pathways of songbirds, as well as humans and parrots, believes that his background in dance and biology helped him to make this discovery and develop his passion for studying language and speech.
The interdependence of speech and dance circuits in the human brain
The evolution of speech in humans required tight integration between the brain regions controlling muscle movement for producing sound and regions that can hear sound. This integration contaminated surrounding brain regions, allowing humans to coordinate muscle movements of the body with speech sounds. Humans use their voices for semantic abstract communication while learned dance is used for effective emotional bonding. The dance circuit inherited the ancient part of the speech circuit, which was for singing. There is possibly a coordination between the performer and audience at the level of mind and body. Neuroscientists are now studying the neurobiology of dance as a new field in the last five years.
Brain Resonance and Expression in Dance and Communication
Research suggests that when dancers resonate with each other or with the audience, their brain activity scores higher resonance with wireless EEG signals. This resonance shows that there is a possible connection where our responses to the music and dancing are linked together. While genetic factors may predispose some people to sing or dance better, it is still possible to modify our own muscles or brain circuits to enhance our abilities. Facial expressions can also convey subconscious emotions that can cue our attention and influence how we perceive others. When our speech matches our facial expressions, it creates a sense of alignment that feels wonderful. Understanding these connections can help us appreciate the deeper levels of communication and expression in the arts and in our daily lives.
The Complex Relationship Between Facial Expressions and Language Skills in Humans and Non-Human Primates
Facial expressions and language skills are controlled by different motor circuits in the brain. Non-human primates have varied facial expressions, which communicate unconsciously or intentionally. While facial expressions in humans are innate and learned, coupling them with language requires practice and learnability. The innate nature of facial expressions brings voice and facial expressions together, making it challenging to dissociate them. Writing and speaking language involve different processes of thinking and motor circuits, and one needs to focus on writing complete sentences to force thinking in complete sentences.
The Complexity of the Neurocognitive Processes of Writing and Speech
When we think in our minds, our thoughts may look like passive language that needs simplification, but the process from thought to written word is incredibly complex, involving multiple circuits in the brain, such as visual, auditory, speech production, and perception, and even hand gestures. Writing by hand may be fundamentally different from typing, allowing for better alignment between thought and writing speed. The internal speech going on in our minds and the circuitry required for reading, writing, and speaking silently are all intricate neurocomputational problems. Our brains have unique language modules that do not involve complex algorithms, and a separate language module for each brain activity. Overall, it's remarkable that any of us can navigate these neurocognitive challenges to communicate through writing and speech effectively.
The difference between writing and typing and its relation to speech and motor skills.
Writing by hand and typing require different motor skills. Writing by hand involves more arm movement, while typing involves more finger movement. The difficulty in writing may lie in the fine motor control needed for the muscles, in addition to speaking. It is essential to align writing or typing with speech to make sense. Singing and listening to music help Parkinson's patients move better and exercise speech brain circuits. Stuttering is a complicated situation that needs attention. Studies on songbirds suggest that new neurogenesis in the bird's brain is responsible for speech recovery. Unlike birds, human or mammal brains don't undergo new neurogenesis, leading to long-lasting stuttering.
Understanding Causes and Treatments for Stuttering in Humans
Stuttering in humans can be caused by damage or disruption to the basal ganglia, which can occur at a young age or be present since birth. However, therapy and behavioral techniques can reduce stuttering in adults by improving sensory motor integration and controlling what they hear with what they output. Additionally, the motor theory of speech perception suggests that when we hear someone speak, it activates our speech circuit and muscles, which sometimes lead people to finish the speaker's sentence without realizing it. Texting has caused people to communicate in shorthand, sometimes leading to the degradation of proper grammar and sentence structure in speech. However, slang has existed for centuries, and people tend to suppress slang as they age since it becomes out of context.
The Impact of Texting on Our Brain and Society
Texting is changing the way our brains work by exercising different circuits than regular writing. While it may not decrease our speech powers, it can lead to unintended negative consequences such as misinterpretation of messages. The short latency between thought and distribution, as seen in tweets, can cause casualties especially in people with poor prefrontal top-down control. The technology companies should install AI-based buffers to slow down and filter negative thoughts before they are posted online. However, the technology is also evolving to make it possible for paralyzed people to put their thoughts into writing. This is part of our evolution in language and motor patterns.
The Link between Body Movement and Cognitive Ability
Moving our bodies, practicing speech, or singing helps in controlling the brain circuits that are responsible for perception and production and thus keep our cognitive circuits in tune. Dancing, walking, running, and reading hard books and simple books are recommended for keeping the brain fresh and cognitively intact. Dr. Erich Jarvis emphasized the importance of consistent movement and practicing speech to keep our cognitive abilities in check with personal anecdotal experiences. Andrew Huberman also expressed his interest in learning how to dance because of its many benefits. The conversation also touched upon the exciting possibility of translating our thoughts into words and transmitting them wirelessly, but the ethics of such an approach remain questionable.
The Importance of Genomic Studies for Animal Species and Conservation Efforts
The study of genomes of various animal species is valuable for understanding brain circuits, identifying genetic changes associated with specific traits, and studying evolution. The genomes are critical for comparative genomics and GWAS, and for creating complete phylogenetic trees. Large-scale consortiums are essential for producing genomes for all species on the planet. Complete genomes help identify false gene duplications and missing parts of the genome ensures better genome assembly algorithms. The dark matter of the genome holds regulatory regions that are essential in vocal learning species and critical in developing speech circuits. Genomic studies promise to help recreate extinct species and offer hope to conserve critically endangered species, making it a moral duty.
The Importance of Genome Biology for Endangered Species Conservation.
Genome biology has developed tools to capture the genetic code of endangered species and store it in a database called the genome mark. The high-quality genome data of endangered species is produced for conservation projects to revive and restore species like passenger pigeon or woolly mammoth. Understanding different species' brain structures and genomes can lead to valuable insights. Evolution of skin color in humans and other animals has evolved independently multiple times and is associated with genes involved in melanin formation. Some of the same genes are used in evolutionary perspective to evolve in a similar way within and across species. The conversation highlights the importance of understanding the brain structures and genomes of different species for basic science and conservation purposes.