🔢 Key Takeaways
- The Piraha tribe's happiness challenges the belief that modern-day stresses cause suicide. Instead, cultural and societal norms play a significant role in shaping our emotional wellbeing.
- Suicide is more common than homicide in the US, yet it is rarely discussed. Questions about prevention and motivation remain, while some suggest a natural desire to stay alive may be responsible for low suicide rates in impoverished communities.
- Understanding the risk factors and disparities of suicide among gender, race, age, location, and method of suicide can help in preventing and reducing its incidence. Being unmarried, widowed, or divorced also increases the risk.
- Suicide is a major cause of death, especially for people aged 25-34. It is more common on Mondays and in spring, and is highest in the western states with a high population of middle-aged white men. Inequality and stratification can help explain the variance in rates.
- Blaming external factors for personal misery may prevent some whites from taking their own lives, while African-Americans may externalize their frustration into dangerous situations. Suicide prevention efforts need to consider cultural and societal factors.
- Media reporting on suicide, especially sensational stories or famous victims, can lead to copycat suicides. It is important for the media to be responsible in their reporting to prevent potential copycat acts.
- The way suicide is reported in the media can have a significant impact on vulnerable individuals. Avoiding graphic and sensational coverage and providing information on help lines and crisis services can reduce suicide rates by up to 80%.
- The way the media reports on suicides can either lead to copycat suicides or help prevent them. Focusing on positive messaging and providing alternatives to suicide can reduce rates, while negative reporting can increase them.
- Mental illness can have a profound impact on individuals and families, and seeking help and support is crucial. While cultural attitudes and external triggers can play a role in suicide, mental health treatment can provide relief and prevention.
- A town in Hungary reduced its suicide rates by setting up a hotline, training general practitioners, and providing low-cost anti-depressants. This shows the importance of implementing mental health resources to prevent suicide in communities.
- Although anti-depressants can lower suicide rates, solving the issue of high suicide rates requires a change in societal attitudes towards suicide and increased support for mental health services. Psychiatrist Bela Buda explains the complex issue.
- Suicide is a complex issue with many unknowns and is often an impulsive decision. It is important to raise awareness, provide resources, and seek immediate help and support for those struggling with suicidal thoughts.
- Suicide cannot be explained through economic theories alone. Factors such as mental health, social support, and access to resources have a significant role in preventing it. A multidisciplinary approach is crucial to tackling this complex issue.
- Although various historical thinkers have had different views on suicide, society generally views it as a wrong and irrational act. Economic analysis can help quantify the cost of suicide.
- Suicide may not always have a rational explanation, but there are known risk factors. It's important to seek help if you or someone you know is struggling with thoughts of suicide. Life is worth embracing, even the small things.
- Research shows that suicide rates tend to be higher in regions with higher quality of life indices, as individuals experiencing depression and unhappiness may view it as a stable trait or defect within themselves due to no external cause to blame, posing a paradoxical phenomenon.
📝 Podcast Notes
The Relentlessly Happy Piraha Tribe of the Amazon
Dan Everett's 30-year study of the Piraha tribe in the Amazon reveals that they are relentlessly happy despite living in huts, sleeping on the ground, and hunting with bows and arrows. This happiness and contentment made him abandon his religious goals, as they seemed to have it more together than most religious people he knew. During his early days with the tribe, he shared a sad story about his stepmother's suicide, which resulted in everyone bursting out laughing because the concept of suicide was inexplicable to them. In the 30 years that Everett studied the Piraha, there were zero suicides, suggesting that it's not modern life stress that causes suicide, but cultural and societal norms.
The Taboo Topic of Suicide in the US
Suicide is a much more common tragedy in the US than homicide, with around twice as many suicides occurring each year. However, most suicides don't make the news, and suicide remains a taboo topic that is rarely discussed. Despite this lack of discussion, there are many questions about suicide, such as whether enough is being done to prevent it, how to prevent it, and why people commit suicide. One economist suggests that human nature might be the reason for the low suicide rates in some of the world's poorest communities - evolution may have built in an unbelievable desire to stay alive that remains even when faced with incredible hardships.
Factors and Disparities in Suicidal Behavior
Understanding suicide is a complex and challenging task, but one that is necessary to prevent it. Factors such as gender, race, age, location, and method of suicide demonstrate the disparities in suicidal behavior. Men are more likely to commit suicide than women, and they usually use more active methods like firearm, which explains the higher success rate. Women, on the other hand, often use poisoning methods. Additionally, being unmarried, widowed, or divorced increases the risk of suicide for both men and women. While there is still much to be learned about suicide, addressing these disparities and risk factors can help in reducing its incidence.
Suicide Rates and their Variation in the US
Suicide is the second leading cause of death for people aged 25-34 and in the top five for all Americans aged 15-54. Suicide rates peak on Mondays and in the spring, not during the long, dark days of winter. Homicide is more common on weekends, national holidays, and in cities. The American suicide belt is comprised of about ten western states and is disproportionately populated by middle-aged and aging white men who are single, unattached, often unemployed and own guns. Washington, D.C. has the lowest suicide rate in the country. Studying inequalities and stratification can help explain the variance observed in suicide rates.
Exploring Suicide and Homicide Rates Among African-Americans and Whites
African-Americans have lower suicide rates but higher homicide rates than whites. Suicide prevention expert, Donna Barnes suggests that in African-American communities homicides may actually be suicides due to externalizing frustration and putting oneself in harm's way. Whites, on the other hand, may have a higher suicide rate because they have fewer external causes to blame their misery for. This is just an idea, but it raises the question of where people put the blame when their life seems beyond repair. The US sees 100 suicides a day, however, the vast majority go unnoticed. The upcoming section explores why some places experience high suicide rates.
The Werther Effect: How Media Portrayal of Suicide Can Influence Copycat Suicides
The media's portrayal of suicide, especially in the case of sensational stories or famous victims, can lead to copycat suicides. This phenomenon, called the Werther Effect, has been studied by sociologists for decades. In a seminal paper, David Phillips and his team were the first to provide modern large-scale evidence that copycat suicides exist. They gathered 20 years of suicide data and found that suicide rates were higher than expected for about two months following front-page suicide reports. For example, after Marilyn Monroe's death, U.S. suicide rates were 10 percent higher than normal in August of 1962. The media must be responsible in reporting about suicides to prevent potential copycat acts.
The Werther Effect: How Media Reporting Impacts Suicide Rates
Media reporting on suicide can have a significant impact on suicide rates. Studies have shown that suicide reporting can act as a trigger and influence vulnerable individuals to consider suicide. The Werther Effect, named after a character in a famous suicide novel, highlights the impact of media reporting on suicide. The effect is characterized by an increase in suicide rates after high-profile media coverage of suicide. The study conducted in Vienna showed that changing the way suicide stories are reported can have a significant impact on suicide rates. Avoiding graphic and sensational coverage and providing information on help lines and crisis services can reduce suicide rates by up to 80%.
The Power of Media Reporting on Suicide Rates
Media reporting of suicides can have a significant impact on suicide rates, with both negative and positive effects. The 'Werther Effect' describes the phenomenon of copycat suicides occurring as a result of extensive media coverage, while the 'Papageno Effect' suggests that highlighting alternative solutions to suicide can lead to decreased suicide rates. Reports that use negative definitions of suicide were found to be 99% less likely to identify a copycat phenomenon. However, it is still unclear why some high-profile suicides lead to contagion while others do not. Media outlets should be mindful of the potential impact of their reporting and strive to promote positive messaging around suicide prevention.
The Impact of 'Gloomy Sunday' and Mental Illness on Suicide
The 1930s song 'Gloomy Sunday' was thought to contribute to a wave of suicides across Europe. As many as 200 people may have taken their lives after listening to the song. While the song served as a trigger, it was not the root cause of the suicidal behavior. Hungary, where the composer of the song eventually took his own life, has had the highest suicide rate in the world for most of the last century. The high rate could be attributed to a history of mental illness in families, as well as a negative attitude towards psychiatric drugs and treatment. Szilvia and Levente Ladomerszky's story exemplify the impact of mental illness on individuals and families, and the importance of seeking help and support.
Suicide Prevention Measures in a Hungarian Town
Hungary has one of the highest suicide rates in the world, with alcohol and bipolar disorder being the major contributing factors. Kiskunhalas, a small town with double the national suicide rate, undertook suicide prevention measures like setting up a hotline, training general practitioners in suicide prevention, and making low-cost anti-depressants available to residents. The results were successful, with a 16% decrease in suicide rates and a 34% decrease in suicide rates for women. This highlights the importance of implementing proper mental health resources and support to help prevent suicide in communities globally.
Anti-Depressants and Suicide Prevention in Hungary
Anti-depressants have been found to lower suicide rates, as seen in the success of a suicide prevention program in Kishkunhals. However, Hungary still has one of the highest suicide rates in the world, and solving the problem is difficult due to the general opinion being favorable towards suicide. Psychiatrist Bela Buda, who has dedicated his career to addressing the issue, explains that suicide is often viewed as a brave act in the Hungarian community. The Golden Gate Bridge is historically the world's No. 1 suicide spot, with over 1,400 suicides since its opening. While there are more suicides at the Aokigahara Forest in Japan now, the fact remains that suicide is a complex issue that requires a change in societal attitudes and increased support for mental health services.
The Complexity of Suicide and Impulsive Decisions
Suicide is a complex act influenced by various factors and often happens impulsively. The reasons behind suicide and the percentage of mentally ill people committing suicide are highly debated among experts, and there are many unknowns. The majority of suicide attempts are decided and executed in a relatively short period, and 98% of jumpers from the Golden Gate Bridge do not survive their attempt. Suicide is a serious issue, and it is crucial to raise awareness and provide resources to those who may be struggling. Anyone considering suicide should seek immediate help and support.
The Economics of Suicide: A Rationalized Decision Making
Suicide is a complex issue that defies simple solutions. Some people make a permanent decision to end their lives impulsively, often with no warning. However, one economist, Dan Hamermesh, suggests that the decision to commit suicide can be rationalized through the economic theory of weighing the benefits against the costs. Hamermesh's research found that suicide tends to rise with age, falls as income increases, and falls if one has a high desire to live. This suggests that addressing suicide requires a multidisciplinary approach, not just an economic one. Factors like mental health, social support, and access to resources play crucial roles in stopping suicide.
The Historical and Economic Perspective on Suicide
Economist Daniel Hamermesh was one of the first to use data analysis to understand suicide, considering factors like future happiness and income to calculate the economic cost of suicide. However, philosophers like Plato, Aristotle and the Stoics had already offered their own perspectives centuries ago. While Plato saw suicide as wrong in some cases but not in others, Aristotle viewed it as a cowardly act that was an offense to society. The Stoics believed that suicide could be a wise and reflective act, granting permission to citizens with a supply of hemlock on hand. However, today we still view suicide as an immoral and irrational behavior, despite individual variations in life experiences and philosophy.
The Perplexities of Life and Death
Carolyn Heilbrun, a successful author and mother of three, announced that she would end her life at 70, but later changed her mind and embraced life, even the small things. However, at 77, feeling that she had come to the end of her writing career, she took her own life. While her husband and children were not aware of her intentions, her daughter believes that her mother made an irrational decision. Suicide expert David Lester has studied suicide for over 40 years and has found answers to some questions, such as who is most at risk and when. However, the decision to end one's life can defy rational explanation.
Suicide as an Inevitable Consequence of Improving Quality of Life
Despite its puzzling nature, research suggests that suicide may be an inevitable consequence of improving quality of life. When a society's quality of life improves, individuals who are still experiencing depression and unhappiness are more likely to view it as a stable trait or defect within themselves, since there is no external cause to blame for their misery. This paradoxical phenomenon suggests that suicide rates tend to be higher in regions with higher quality of life indices, as reported by David Lester. Some scholars have even suggested that suicide is an indication of a healthy society rather than a sick one, raising the question of whether suicide can be considered a luxury good.